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English: Vocalization subsystems in complex-vocal learners and in limited-vocal learners or vocal non-learners: Direct and indirect pathways. The different subsystems for vocalization and their interconnectivity are illustrated using different colors. (A) Schematic of a songbird brain showing some connectivity of the four major song nuclei (HVC, RA, AreaX, and LMAN). (B) Human brain schematic showing the different proposed vocal subsystems. The learned vocalization subsystem consists of a primary motor cortex pathway (blue arrow) and a cortico-striatal-thalamic loop for learning vocalizations (white). Also shown is the limbic vocal subsystem that is broadly conserved in primates for producing innate vocalizations (black), and the motoneurons that control laryngeal muscles (red). (C) Known connectivity of a brainstem vocal system (not all connections shown) showing absence of forebrain song nuclei in vocal non-learning birds. (D) Known connectivity of limited-vocal learning monkeys (based on data in squirrel monkeys and macaques) showing presence of forebrain regions for innate vocalization (ACC, OFC, and amygdala) and also of a ventral premotor area (Area 6vr) of currently poorly understood function that is indirectly connected to nucleus ambiguous. The LMC in humans is directly connected with motoneurons in the nucleus ambiguus, which orchestrate the production of learned vocalizations. Only the direct pathway through the mammalian basal ganglia (ASt, anterior striatum; GPi, globus palidus, internal) is shown as this is the one most similar to AreaX connectivity in songbirds. Modified figure based on (Jarvis, 2004; Jarvis et al., 2005). Abbreviations: ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; Am, nucleus ambiguus; Amyg, amygdala; AT, anterior thalamus; Av, nucleus avalanche; DLM, dorsolateral nucleus of the medial thalamus; DM, dorsal medial nucleus of the midbrain; HVC, high vocal center; LMAN, lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium; LMC, laryngeal motor cortex; OFC, orbito-frontal cortex; PAG, periaqueductal gray; RA, robust nucleus of the of arcopallium; RF, reticular formation; vPFC, ventral prefrontal cortex; VLT, ventro-lateral division of thalamus; XIIts, bird twelfth nerve nucleus. From Petkov, CI; Jarvis ED (2012). "Birds, primates, and spoken language origins: behavioral phenotypes and neurobiological substrates". Front. Evol. Neurosci. 4:12.
|Source||Petkov, CI; Jarvis ED (2012). "Birds, primates, and spoken language origins: behavioral phenotypes and neurobiological substrates". Front. Evol. Neurosci. 4:12. doi:10.3389/fnevo.2012.00012|
|Author||Christopher Petkov and Erich Jarvis|
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