File:Betty Grable and Carmen Miranda, 1942 (2).jpg
English: Betty Grable and Carmen Miranda in the film Springtime in the Rockies (1942).
Português: Betty Grable e Carmen Miranda no filme Minha Secretária Brasileira (1942).
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Nancy Wolff, includes a similar explanation:
Film industry author Gerald Mast, in Film Study and the Copyright Law (1989) p. 87, writes:
Kristin Thompson, committee chairperson of the for Cinema and Media Studies writes in the conclusion of a 1993 conference with cinema scholars and editors, that they "expressed the opinion that it is not necessary for authors to request permission to reproduce frame enlargements. . . [and] some trade presses that publish educational and scholarly film books also take the position that permission is not necessary for reproducing frame enlargements and publicity photographs."
This work is in the public domain because it was published in the United States between 1923 and 1963 and although there may or may not have been a copyright notice, the copyright was not renewed. Unless its author has been dead for the required period, it is copyrighted in the countries or areas that do not apply the rule of the shorter term for US works, such as Canada (50 pma), Mainland China (50 pma, not Hong Kong or Macao), Germany (70 pma), Mexico (100 pma), Switzerland (70 pma), and other countries with individual treaties. See Commons:Hirtle chart for further explanation.
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