Schulze method

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The Schulze method is a voting system developed in 1997 by Markus Schulze that selects a single winner using votes that express preferences. The method can also be used to create a sorted list of winners. The Schulze method is also known as Schwartz Sequential Dropping (SSD), Cloneproof Schwartz Sequential Dropping (CSSD), Beatpath Method, Beatpath Winner, Path Voting, and Path Winner.

An example for the "Cloneproof Schwartz Sequential Dropping" heuristic for the Schulze method:

Sequence in SVG:

Same content in PNG:

Another example for the "Cloneproof Schwartz Sequential Dropping" heuristic for the Schulze method:

Sequence in SVG:

Same content in PNG:

Other examples for the Schulze method:

Sequence in SVG:

Same content in PNG:

... to A ... to B ... to C ... to D ... to E
from A ...
Schulze method example1 AB.svg
A-(30)-D-(28)-C-(29)-B
Schulze method example1 AC.svg
A-(30)-D-(28)-C
Schulze method example1 AD.svg
A-(30)-D
Schulze method example1 AE.svg
A-(30)-D-(28)-C-(24)-E
from A ...
from B ...
Schulze method example1 BA.svg
B-(25)-A
Schulze method example1 BC.svg
B-(33)-D-(28)-C
Schulze method example1 BD.svg
B-(33)-D
Schulze method example1 BE.svg
B-(33)-D-(28)-C-(24)-E
from B ...
from C ...
Schulze method example1 CA.svg
C-(29)-B-(25)-A
Schulze method example1 CB.svg
C-(29)-B
Schulze method example1 CD.svg
C-(29)-B-(33)-D
Schulze method example1 CE.svg
C-(24)-E
from C ...
from D ...
Schulze method example1 DA.svg
D-(28)-C-(29)-B-(25)-A
Schulze method example1 DB.svg
D-(28)-C-(29)-B
Schulze method example1 DC.svg
D-(28)-C
Schulze method example1 DE.svg
D-(28)-C-(24)-E
from D ...
from E ...
Schulze method example1 EA.svg
E-(31)-D-(28)-C-(29)-B-(25)-A
Schulze method example1 EB.svg
E-(31)-D-(28)-C-(29)-B
Schulze method example1 EC.svg
E-(31)-D-(28)-C
Schulze method example1 ED.svg
E-(31)-D
from E ...
... to A ... to B ... to C ... to D ... to E
... to A ... to B ... to C ... to D
from A ...
Schulze method example2 AB.svg
A-(20)-C-(21)-B
Schulze method example2 AC.svg
A-(20)-C
Schulze method example2 AD.svg
A-(20)-C-(17)-D
from A ...
from B ...
Schulze method example2 BA.svg
B-(19)-A
Schulze method example2 BC.svg
B-(19)-A-(20)-C
Schulze method example2 BD.svg
B-(19)-A-(20)-C-(17)-D
from B ...
from C ...
Schulze method example2 CA.svg
C-(21)-B-(19)-A
Schulze method example2 CB.svg
C-(21)-B
Schulze method example2 CD.svg
C-(17)-D
from C ...
from D ...
Schulze method example2 DA.svg
D-(18)-B-(19)-A
Schulze method example2 DB.svg
D-(18)-B
Schulze method example2 DC.svg
D-(18)-B-(19)-A-(20)-C
from D ...
... to A ... to B ... to C ... to D
... to A ... to B ... to C ... to D ... to E
from A ...
Schulze method example3 AB.svg
A-(18)-B
Schulze method example3 AC.svg
A-(21)-D-(20)-C
Schulze method example3 AD.svg
A-(21)-D
Schulze method example3 AE.svg
A-(21)-E
from A ...
from B ...
Schulze method example3 BA.svg
B-(19)-E-(20)-C-(19)-A
Schulze method example3 BC.svg
B-(19)-E-(20)-C
Schulze method example3 BD.svg
B-(19)-E-(20)-C-(19)-A-(21)-D
Schulze method example3 BE.svg
B-(19)-E
from B ...
from C ...
Schulze method example3 CA.svg
C-(19)-A
Schulze method example3 CB.svg
C-(19)-A-(18)-B
Schulze method example3 CD.svg
C-(19)-A-(21)-D
Schulze method example3 CE.svg
C-(19)-A-(21)-E
from C ...
from D ...
Schulze method example3 DA.svg
D-(20)-C-(19)-A
Schulze method example3 DB.svg
D-(20)-C-(19)-A-(18)-B
Schulze method example3 DC.svg
D-(20)-C
Schulze method example3 DE.svg
D-(30)-E
from D ...
from E ...
Schulze method example3 EA.svg
E-(20)-C-(19)-A
Schulze method example3 EB.svg
E-(20)-C-(19)-A-(18)-B
Schulze method example3 EC.svg
E-(20)-C
Schulze method example3 ED.svg
E-(20)-C-(19)-A-(21)-D
from E ...
... to A ... to B ... to C ... to D ... to E
... to A ... to B ... to C ... to D
from A ...
Schulze method example4 AB.svg
A-(5)-B
Schulze method example4 AC.svg
A-(5)-C
Schulze method example4 AD.svg
A-(5)-B-(5)-D
from A ...
from B ...
Schulze method example4 BA.svg
B-(5)-D-(6)-A
Schulze method example4 BC.svg
B-(7)-C
Schulze method example4 BD.svg
B-(5)-D
from B ...
from C ...
Schulze method example4 CA.svg
C-(5)-D-(6)-A
Schulze method example4 CB.svg
C-(5)-D-(6)-A-(5)-B
Schulze method example4 CD.svg
C-(5)-D
from C ...
from D ...
Schulze method example4 DA.svg
D-(6)-A
Schulze method example4 DB.svg
D-(6)-A-(5)-B
Schulze method example4 DC.svg
D-(6)-A-(5)-C
from D ...
... to A ... to B ... to C ... to D
... to A ... to B ... to C ... to D
from A ...
Schulze method example7 AB.svg
A-(14)-C-(15)-B
Schulze method example7 AC.svg
A-(14)-C
Schulze method example7 AD.svg
A-(14)-C-(12)-D
from A ...
from B ...
Schulze method example7 BA.svg
B-(13)-A
Schulze method example7 BC.svg
B-(13)-A-(14)-C
Schulze method example7 BD.svg
B-(13)-A-(14)-C-(12)-D
from B ...
from C ...
Schulze method example7 CA.svg
C-(15)-B-(13)-A
Schulze method example7 CB.svg
C-(15)-B
Schulze method example7 CD.svg
C-(12)-D
from C ...
from D ...
Schulze method example7 DA.svg
D-(19)-B-(13)-A
Schulze method example7 DB.svg
D-(19)-B
Schulze method example7 DC.svg
D-(19)-B-(13)-A-(14)-C
from D ...
... to A ... to B ... to C ... to D
... to JH ... to RP ... to SS ... to RS
from JH ...
Schulze method example8 AB.png
JH-(841)-RP
Schulze method example8 AC.png
JH-(798)-SS
Schulze method example8 AD.png
JH-(841)-RP-(797)-RS
from JH ...
from RP ...
Schulze method example8 BA.png
RP-(797)-RS-(745)-JH
Schulze method example8 BC.png
RP-(755)-SS
Schulze method example8 BD.png
RP-(797)-RS
from RP ...
from SS ...
Schulze method example8 CA.png
SS-(778)-RS-(745)-JH
Schulze method example8 CB.png
SS-(778)-RS-(745)-JH-(841)-RP
Schulze method example8 CD.png
SS-(778)-RS
from SS ...
from RS ...
Schulze method example8 DA.png
RS-(745)-JH
Schulze method example8 DB.png
RS-(745)-JH-(841)-RP
Schulze method example8 DC.png
RS-(745)-JH-(798)-SS
from RS ...
... to JH ... to RP ... to SS ... to RS

Pamphlets: