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Mandora is a type of lute. The terms referred to different instruments at different periods in history.

(⇒ See Mandora#List of instruments referred as Mandora on Wikipedia articles)

See Also[edit]


  • Laurence Wright (1977). "The Medieval Gittern and Citole: A Case of Mistaken Identity". Galpin Society Journal 30 (May, 1977): 8–42. ISSN 0072-0127.
    "Confusion surrounds the identity of the gittern and citole. Whilst it is generally agreed that the citole was the ancestor of the Renaissance cittern and that the gittern was related to the Renaissance guitar (but perhaps not so closely as the vihuela), there is disagreement when it comes to identifying pictures and sculptures of the two instruments.”, “Any approach to the problem must include the mandora, which constitutes a third, and complicating factor. As we have seen, many writers identify it with the guitarra morisca. ..."
  • The Gittern and Citole. Diabolus in Musica Guide to Early Instruments.
    "... It took some extremely painstaking cross-referencing by a guy called Laurence Wright to sort it all out. The final conclusion was pretty definite, and appeared in the Galpin Society Journal in May 1977. The information took a while to filter through the early music community though, so beware of any reference to the gittern, citole, or mandora in pre-1985 texts."
  • Stewart Pollens () "The mandola and mandolino" in Stradivari, Cambridge University Press, p. 192 ISBN: 978-0-521-87304-8.
    "However, Praetorius states that the lute was originally made with four double courses, ... Four- and five-course lutes were used in the fifteenth century, and the six course was introduced around the beginning of the sixteenth century; thus, a Medieval or early Renaissance small octave lute or four or five courses might have been indistinguishable from a mandora of the early seventeenth century, though a small octave lute of Praetorius's day wood have differed from a contemporary mandora by having one or two more courses of strings. In Marin Mersenne's Harmonie universelle, the mandore is described as having four strings, but he adds that it also could be fitted with six or even a greater number of courses. ... Arthanasius Kircher's Musurgia universalis (Rome, 1650) indicates that the mandora had four, five, or six courses of strings and gives three tuning systems for the four-course mandora: c', g', c, e; c', g', c, d; c', g', c, c; Thus, seventeenth-century German, French, and Italian publications provide conflicting descriptions of the mandora or mandore with regard to size, number of strings, and tuning."
  • Randel, Don Michael The Harvard Dictionary of Music, Harvard University Press reference library, Vol. 16, Harvard University Press, p. 484 ISBN: 978-0-674-01163-2.
    "Mandora, mandore, mandola [Fr. mandore; Ger. Mandoër, Mandürichen, Mandourlauten; It. Mandola; Sp. vandola]. (1) A lutelike instrument developed from the medieval *gittern. ... (2) An 18th-century Austrian and German eight course hybrid combining a lute body and pegbox with a guitar neck. This was played and tuned like the guitar: C D E A d g b e'. ..."

 An example of Renaissance lute which was modified to Baroque style in 17th century, then again modified to lute guitar style in 19th century.

  • 89.2.157: Lute (1596), Sixtus Rauchwolff (German, Augsburg 1556-1619). Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    "... It was probably originally made for seven or eight courses (pairs) of strings, but in the seventeenth century the neck, bridge, and pegbox were replaced or modified to give the instrument a Baroque configuration. In the nineteenth century, the neck was reduced, fixed frets were added, and the instrument was changed to six-strings, like on a guitar. ..."


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