Commons:覆寫現有的檔案

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本方针介绍用户何时应该、何时不该覆盖现有文件[1]本方针有其必要性,因为使用共享资源文件的维基媒体项目和直接使用共享资源内容的外部重用程序依赖着文件保持稳定。因此而言,基本规则是现有文件不应该被大不相同的内容覆盖,不过细微改进应该覆盖以前的版本(例外见下文)。如有怀疑或者需解决用户间的争论,请上传为一个新文件

在不覆盖现有文件时,变更应该使用新的名称(尽量类似旧名称)上传,并在文件描述页面中链接原始文件以表明原始作者。

可以進行的覆寫

小改進

✓[OK] 作为一项通则,仅在进行相对较小改进时使用“上传该文件的新版本”链接。例子包括:

  • 替换为同一个文件的高分辨率版本
  • 轻微且无争议的色彩校正、降噪、透视矫正等。
  • 移除一个水印
  • 必要的90/180/270° 旋转,或轻微校正非直立的图像
  • 轻微裁剪
  • 轻微更正图表、地图、图解为更准确的版本
  • 纠正SVG错误
  • 添加或纠正翻译,解决拼写错误(例如将“grater”更正为“greater”)

以及本质不变的类似目的。这可能包括轻微裁剪,如移除新进添加的边框(不上传以前版本的图片为新文件),但可能引起争议的裁剪应该以新名称上传,例如“旧名称 (crop).jpg”。

更正小错误通常被认为是一个小改进。不过,更正越多,就越有必要将更正后的版本上传为一个新文件(以避免更正是否合适的分歧以及上传战),并在必要时提名删除旧文件。

注意:带有图像注释的文件在像素尺寸变化时将丢失这些注释——详见Help:Gadget-ImageAnnotator#Limitations。这不作为进行小修改时要拆分文件的原因,因为注释可以重新输入。

例外

✘ If digital restoration work is being done on a historical document or artwork, the restoration (no matter how minor) should always be uploaded under a new filename from the original file, providing a link back to the source on which it was based in the new file's "other versions" field. The changes that were made should also be documented in sufficient detail to reproduce them, if possible. This is best practice for restorations, because it allows users and subsequent restorers to follow the chain of improvements and to make detailed comparison with the originals. (However, if a restoration already performed to a file, for example, missed a dust spot, it is not necessary to have a new file for each small change in the restoration). In some cases such original files are marked with {{Please-do-not-overwrite-original-files}}.

特色图片的符号

? Take care with files that have been awarded a special status like Featured Picture (or the equivalent on another Wikimedia project) as the status applies to a particular file version. Featured Pictures, Quality Images and Valued Images will be identified on their file description pages using {{Assessments}}. (NB the special Commons status does not transfer to derivative files.) The image creator may make minor changes where they feel this would be uncontroversial wrt the promotional status (for example, removing dust spots or fixing a minor tilt). Potentially controversial changes should be discussed with members of the forum that promoted the image.

✘ Files used in Wikimedia projects where the use requires the file to remain unchanged – which means no overwriting at all: not for updates, minor improvements, or error corrections. Comments (including pointing out errors, and pointing to other versions) may freely be made in the Commons file description, but the file itself should not be overwritten. If necessary, upload a new version as a separate file. Such files should be marked with {{Please-do-not-overwrite-permanent-version}}.

✘ Controversial or contested changes. If another editor thinks that the change is not an improvement (even if the editor making the change deems it minor), the change can be reverted, and the new image should be uploaded under a new file name. See below.

尊重内容创作者

The original image creator is often the best person to make edits. Since JPG is a lossy format, every edit to a JPG can deteriorate the image slightly; seemingly minor and "beneficial" edits such as changing white balance or adding noise reduction can actually do significant damage. Often the image creator has access to the RAW files from which to make a new version with whatever fix is required. This is always superior to editing the JPG. If it is a photograph, the image creator was there when the picture was taken so will be in a better position to judge whether colours and lighting are correct. Therefore it is strongly recommended that users wishing to make improvements to photographs first contact the creator, whether on Commons or elsewhere.

未经编辑的版本

✓[OK] Sometimes users uploading new files that have been edited (e.g. a photograph improved for colour, contrast, etc, compared to the raw photo) may wish to provide the original unedited version as well. Uploading these independently would needlessly clutter categories. The solution is to first upload the unedited version, and then shortly afterwards to upload the edited version over it, so that the unedited version is available in the file history. The unedited versions are not intended to be used independently, and should not be split out as separate files unless this is needed for a specific known use. Files using this approach should be labelled with {{Unedited version}}.

Note: overwriting unedited versions applies only shortly after upload of the unedited version, and only to the original uploader when uploading an improved version of the same file. In all other cases, the usual criteria about overwriting apply (is it minor improvement? etc). In addition, the usual rule about resolving disagreements applies: if another user feels it useful to split the file, it should be split.

次要图像

✓[OK] Sometimes users may wish to provide an image related to their upload, which might fall outside the Project scope as an independent file. Examples include images of labels related to the subject of the main image, or the reverse of a postcard as evidence of copyright status. The solution is to first upload the secondary image, and then shortly afterwards to upload the main image over it, so that the secondary image is available in the file history. The secondary images are not intended to be used independently, and should not be split out as separate files unless this is needed for a specific known use. Files using this approach should be labelled with {{Secondary image}}. Note that secondary images are not exempt from the usual requirements of Commons:Licensing.

Note: overwriting secondary images applies only shortly after upload of the secondary image, and only to the original uploader. In all other cases, the usual criteria about overwriting apply (is it minor improvement? etc). In addition, the usual rule about resolving disagreements applies: if another user feels it useful to split the file, it should be split.

反映当前数据的文件

✘ Be cautious about overwriting files with new versions reflecting new information, as in many cases this may not be what reusers want.

✓[OK] However, files may be identified to reusers as ones where information may be updated – these files can and should be overwritten to reflect new information as necessary. Identification may be by the filename, file description, categories, or (most clearly) with the {{Current}} template. A file named "File:Germany location map.svg" is expected to indicate the current boundaries, and is expected to be updated if, for example, the boundaries changed or errors were observed. On the other hand a file named "File:Germany, Federal Republic of location map October 1949 - November 1950.svg" is expected to be correct for that period and not reflect current boundaries.

不得進行的覆寫

小修改规则的例外

  • “小修改应该上传到同一文件”规则(见上文)的例外:
    • ✘ 数字修复
    • ✘ Files that have been awarded a special status like Commons Featured Picture, Commons Quality Image, or similar status on another Wikimedia project. Such files are marked with {{Assessments}}.
    • ✘ 文件在维基媒体项目中使用,且其中要求文件保持不变
    • ✘ 有争议的更改——见下文
    • ✘ Artificially upscaling or enlarging using any tool, including AI-based or deep learning services
    • ✘ 移除部分歷史圖片。
      For instance, historical engravings often have a border, and text describing the image under the image. If it was part of the original composition, and you want to remove it for some use on Wikimedia sites, upload it as a new file. If there are annotations or markings in the image that weren't part of the original composition, these can be removed and placed into the {{Information}} template, without a need to upload as a new image; for example, in the case of the Bundesarchive images, there is usually a call number and date of the photograph.

实质性更改

  • ✘ 较大的更改(例如,可能有争议的裁剪)
  • ✘ 反映不同数据的更改(例如更新地图)
    • ✓[OK] 除非文件被标为可更新——即通过文件名、描述或{{Current}}模板向重用者标明信息可能更新

不相关的文件

  • ✘ 完全不相干的文件
    • ✘ 同一个主题的不同文件(例如将一张牛的照片上传在另一张牛的照片上)
    • ✘ 与同一对象相关的不同文件(例如Michelangelo's David的不同照片)
    • 注意:不要覆盖一个文件来代替删除;请遵循Commons:Deletion policy操作。

有争议的更改

✘ Changes to a file that are likely to be contested should be uploaded to a separate filename. Upload wars (a form of edit war in which contributors repeatedly upload different versions of a file in an effort to have their version be the visible one) are always undesirable. As with other forms of edit warring, users who engage in upload wars may be blocked from editing.

If another editor thinks that a change is not an improvement (even if the editor making the change thinks it's minor), the change can be reverted. Once a change has been reverted, the new image should be uploaded under a new filename (unless the reverting editor explicitly or implicitly agrees to the contested change). This is true even if the change is necessary, in one editor's view, to avoid a copyright infringement: in this case, if agreement cannot be reached through discussion, the old file should be nominated for deletion.

The more known uses of a file there are (through transclusions on Wikimedia projects), the more cautious contributors should be in deciding whether a change qualifies as "minor". Widespread usage of a file makes it more likely that even small changes will be controversial. If in doubt, uploading as a separate file avoids potential surprises for reusers. In some cases, prior discussion with previous uploader(s) or in locations where the file is in use may help decide whether a planned change can be considered "minor".

破坏与其他图像一致性的更改

✘ When images are consistent among each other, individual images should not be changed in a way that makes them inconsistent with the others. (E.g. File:Icosahedron flat.svg should not have been overwritten with a white version, because that broke the consistency of the set.)

✓[OK] Small changes can be made to all images, as long as they remain consistent. (E.g. it was fine to remove circles around numbers in File:Hawaiian Eruption-numbers.svg, because it was done to all images in the set.)

舉例

小改进

参见下列例子的版本历史:

Minor improvements for textual elements include correcting spelling on a map's labels. By contrast, translating a map's labels from English to German is a major change, and should be uploaded as a separate file.

实质性裁剪或反裁剪

Whether a crop is "substantial" depends partly on the proportion of the image cropped, and partly on how much the excluded content affects the composition. For an image of a museum object on a grey background, cropping much closer to the object was considered a minor crop:

On the other hand, the photograph below of Martin Scorsese was substantially cropped for a closeup on his face, and the result was put into a separate file; and the photograph below of a mountain was cropped to substantially recompose it:

在裁剪JPEG图像时,永远要记住使用无损裁剪

  • Example: This 1899 portrait of a young man with a fish by Wilhelm von Gloeden was uploaded in 2005 but then overwritten in 2010 by a full length un-cropped version. Though the intent was to restore the image to a better quality version, the overwrite proved highly controversial as it changed the context from a modest pose to a nude with potential erotic connotations. In some existing transclusions this change was unwanted and caused controversy. Uploading the higher quality image as a separate file would have avoided this.

未经编辑的版本

次要图像

  • Example: File:Neapolitan Fisherboy.jpg is an image of a sculpture, and contains an image of the sculpture's label in the file history.
  • Example: File:William Shatner Star Trek.JPG is a publicity photo of William Shatner as James Kirk from the television program Star Trek, and the oldest image in the file history is used to verify the public domain status.

反映当前数据的文件

例如:

有争议的更改

永久版本

連結檔案

来源归属

Be sure to attribute the original author appropriately, and to apply a license compatible with the original file. You can use {{Derived from}} and {{Derivative versions}} to link the files. More specific derivative templates are also available, including {{Image extracted}}, {{Retouched picture}}, and {{Attrib}}.

使用信息模板的“其他版本”字段

The template {{Information}} has an |other versions parameter which you can use to link between different versions of a file. You can

链接到可变内容

When you want to provide or use a stable link from the other projects for any image which is anticipated to be repeatedly updated, you have several ways to do it:

  • Label the image page with the {{Current}} template (see § Files with current data). The main disadvantage is that the old version cannot be directly linked if needed.
  • Create a file redirect page under a fictive filename on Commons and use a link to this filename on the other projects. Change the redirect to each new version (inbound links from other projects need not to be updated). This means updating just one link instead of many. (Note the effect of overwriting or switching over can be delayed slightly through cache delay or can fail through software imperfection.) Example: link to File:Africa borders redirect on Wikipedia, and on Commons have File:Africa borders redirect point to File:Africa borders 2011, File:Africa borders 2012, etc as needed.
  • Combine the two methods. Particular version can be uploaded (and linked) separately under their specific permanent filenames and a different filename can be marked with {{Current}} version and overwritten ever by the current version. That means (just as the previous solution) that the current version is available under two filenames: one for the constant content and one for the updatable content. This solution should be more immune towards cache delay and software-update bugs than the previous one.

Warning: when doing one of these solutions, be sure that users of the filename are clear that the content of the file may change, and try to check uses of the file before updating the redirect or overwriting the file.

備註

  1. 任何期满4天的账户都可以在一个文件的文件描述页面上使用文件历史下方的上传该文件的新版本链接覆盖该文件,或者通过Special:Upload覆盖。Special:Upload在覆盖一个现有文件时提供两条警告信息——MediaWiki:UploadFormPreviewOverwriteErrorMediaWiki:Fileexists(另见Phab:T41344)。UploadWizard不允许覆盖文件。

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