Rzeczpospolita Polska – państwo położone w Europie Środkowej nad Morzem Bałtyckim. Graniczy z Niemcami (na zachodzie), Czechami, Słowacją (na południu), Ukrainą, Białorusią, Litwą (na wschodzie) i Rosją (obwodem kaliningradzkim, na północy), a poprzez granicę morską (granicę wyłącznej strefy ekonomicznej) również z Danią oraz Szwecją.
Deutsch: Polen ist ein Staat in Mitteleuropa. Das Land grenzt im Norden an die russische Exklave Kaliningrad (210 km) und an Litauen (103 km), im Osten an Weißrussland (416 km) und die Ukraine (529 km), im Süden an die Slowakei (539 km) und Tschechien (790 km) sowie im Westen an Deutschland (467 km). Des Weiteren hat das Land eine 528 km lange Ostseeküste. Insgesamt sind Polens Grenzen 3.582 km lang. Die längste Nord-Süd-Ausdehnung beträgt 790 km, die längste Ost-West-Ausdehnung 680 km
The Republic of Poland is a country in Central Europe or Eastern Europe, depending on the definition, bordered by ► Germany to the west, the ► Czech Republic and ► Slovakia to the south, ► Ukraine and ► Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, ► Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) and ► Lithuania to the north. It also shares a maritime border with Denmark and Sweden. The total area of Poland is 312,683 sq km (120,728 sq mi) making it the 69th largest country in the world with population over 38.5 million people concentrated mainly in large cities, including the most populated urban area of Poland, Silesian conurbation (albeit administratively divided into separate cities and towns), the present capital of Poland, Warsaw, the historical capital, Kraków, and industrial city of Łódź.
Republic of Poland
Independent country since the ninth century, interrupted between 1795 and 1918 as well as between 1939 and 1945, member of the ► European Union since 2004
This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day Poland, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day Poland.
Possible extent of (proto-)Celtic influence 800-400 BC
Celts in Europe
Pre-Roman iron age (Proto-Germanic) peoples
Map showing the pre-Migration Age distribution of the Germanic tribes in Proto-Germanic times, and stages of their expansion up to 50 BC, AD 100 and AD 300.
State of the Antes in the 6th century (around 560), according to the book of Francis Dvornik
White Croatia in the 6th century (around 560), according to the book of Francis Dvornik
Map of Slavic peoples in the 8/9c.
Map of Poland 960-992
Map of Poland 992-1025
Map of Poland 1039-1058
Poland and Hungary in 1360
Hanseatic trade routes
Poland and Lithuania during reign of Władysław II Jagiełło 1386-1434 since Ilustrowany atlas historii Polski, wyd. Demart, Warszawa 2006
English version of Poland and Lithuania during reign of Władysław II Jagiełło 1386-1434 since Hans-Erich Stier (dir.) Grosser Atlas zur Weltgeschichte, Westermann 1985, ISBN 3-14-100919-8
In 1386 Poland and Lithuania formed a Polish-Lithuanian personal union. Large parts of present-day Belarus and Ukraine were part of Poland-Lithuania. This map shows the borders in 1466
In 1923 the city of Gdańsk became a Free City under protection of the Leage of Nations. Gdańsk was annexed by Germany in 1939 and is now part of Poland.
This section holds copies of original general maps more than 70 years old.
English map of Poland - XVIII century
Poland in 1836
Poland in 1902
Polish airports in 2011 - passenger traffic
Polish airports in 2007 - passenger traffic
Polish airports in 2006 - passenger traffic
Polish airports in 2005 - passenger traffic
Notes and references
The WIKIMEDIA COMMONS Atlas of the World is an organized and commented collection of geographical, political and historical maps available at Wikimedia Commons. The main page is therefore the portal to maps and cartography on Wikimedia. That page contains links to entries by country, continent and by topic as well as general notes and references.
Every entry has an introduction section in English. If other languages are native and/or official in an entity, introductions in other languages are added in separate sections. The text of the introduction(s) is based on the content of the Wikipedia encyclopedia. For sources of the introduction see therefore the Wikipedia entries linked to. The same goes for the texts in the history sections.
Historical maps are included in the continent, country and dependency entries.
The status of various entities is disputed. See the content for the entities concerned.
The maps of former countries that are more or less continued by a present-day country or had a territory included in only one or two countries are included in the atlas of the present-day country. For example the Ottoman Empire can be found in the Atlas of Turkey.