La République de Côte d'Ivoire ou Côte-d'Ivoire est un pays d'Afrique occidentale. La Côte d'Ivoire, ex-colonie française, obtient son indépendance en 1960. Le pays est actuellement divisé en deux parties qui se disputent sur le concept d'ivoirité.
This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day Côte d'Ivoire, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day Côte d'Ivoire.
In the area that is now Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) the Senufo form in the 11th century their own state. This map shows the area were presently Senufo is spoken. For long times the region is under influence of the Ashanti Kingdom. Although the coast is explored by Portugal in the 15th century, it is not yet colonized.
Before be colonized by France, the area that is now Côte d'Ivoire shows in north of the country, kingdoms of Bouna, Kabadougou, and Kong ; and in east, the Akan kingdoms. In the other parts of the territory, populations are not organized into empires or kingdoms but on the basis of lineage and age groups within tribal communities or villages.
In 1843 the first French settlements and a first French protectorate over some regions is founded. Between 1880 and 1898 France occupies the Mandingo state and the whole of Ivory Coast becomes a French protectorate in 1891. This is changed into a colony in 1893. In 1904 Ivory Coast becomes a constituent part of French West Africa. Inside French West Africa Ivory Coast becomes in 1946 a French overseas territory. After the dissolution of French West Africa in 1958, Ivory Coast gets autonomy as the Republic of Ivory Coast. Carte de l'Afrique Occidentale française
Ivory Coast becomes independent in 1960. In 1999 the army stages a coup and Ivory Coast becomes a military dictatorship under Robert Guei.
After the elections of 2000 Laurent Gbagbo of the Front Populaire Ivorien becomes president. Gbagbo forms in 2002 a de facto government of national unity including the RDR. This map shows the results of the 2002 elections. Élections en 2002
Shortly after that rebels start to attack. Since 2003 a peacekeeping force of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and French troops are stationed in the country and that year a power-sharing national reconciliation government including the New Forces is formed. This map shows the areas under control of the rebels in 2005. Carte montrant les territores contrôlées par les rebels.
Carte montrant les éthnies
Notes and references
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↑In October 1985 the government requested that the country be known as Côte d'Ivoire in every language, without a hyphen between the two words (thereby contravening the standard rule in French that geographical names with several words must be written with hyphens).