Atlas of Afghanistan

From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wikimedia Commons Atlas of the World

The Wikimedia Atlas of the World is an organized and commented collection of geographical, political and historical maps available at Wikimedia Commons.
Discussion • Update the atlas • Index of the Atlas • Atlas in categories • Other atlases on line
The introductions of the country, dependency and region entries are in the native languages and in English. The other introductions are in English.

د افغانستان اسلامي امارت

پښتو [1]افغانستان - د افغانستان اسلامي امارت

افغانستان ; پښتو: د افغانستان اسلامي امارت, فارسي (دري): امارت اسلامی افغانستان) په غرونو کې کلابند يو هېواد دی چې د اسيا د لوې وچې په څلورلاره کې پروت دی. په ټولګړې توګه دا هېواد د منڅنۍ آسيا يوه برخه ده،‌ خو کله ناکله بيا په داسې سيمې څرګند شوی چې نه په منځني ختيځ او نه پر سوېلي اسيا پورې تړلې ده،‌ او دا پدې چې دغه سيمه د منځني ختيځ او سوېلي اسيا سره فرهڼيز، ژب توکميز او جغرافيکي اړيکې لري. دا هېواد په لوېديځ کې د ايران سره،‌ په سوېل او ختيځ کې د پاکستان سره،‌ په سهېل ختيځ کې د چين سره، په سهېل کې د تاجکستان، ازبکستان او ترکمنستان سره ګډې پولې لري.

فارسی [2]افغانستان - امارت اسلامی افغانستان

سرزمین افغانستان در طول تاریخ گلوگاه تهاجم به هند بوده‌است؛ جنگجویان بسیاری چون «اسکندر مقدونی»، «محمود غزنوی»، «تیمور گورکانی»، «نادر شاه افشار»، از پیچ و خم کوه‌ها و دره‌های این کشور خود را به هندوستان رسانده‌اند. علاوه بر این تا قبل از کشف راه‌های آبی در قرون جدید و سپس توسعهٔ راه‌های هوایی، خط مسیر بازرگانی شرق و غرب، از دشت شمال این کشور عبور می‌کرد که محل عبور کاروان‌های جادهٔ ابریشم از این سرزمین بوده که عموماً از طریق قندهار به هند و از طریق بلخ به چین می‌رفت. پس از کشف راه‌های آبی و سپس توسعهٔ راه‌های هوایی، افغانستان مانند سایر سرزمین‌های آسیای مرکزی، تبدیل به منطقه‌ای محصور شد.

English Afghanistan - Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is a landlocked country located at the heart of Asia. Generally considered part of Southern Asia, it is sometimes ascribed to a regional bloc in either Central Asia or the Middle East, as it has religious, ethno-linguistic, and geographic links with most of its neighbours. It is largely bordered by ► Pakistan in the south and east, ► Iran in the west, ► Turkmenistan, ► Uzbekistan and ► Tajikistan (with ► Gorno-Badakhshan) in the north, and the ► People's Republic of China (► Xinjiang) in the far northeast.

Short name  Afghanistan
Official name Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Status Independent country since 1919
Location South Asia
Capital کابل‎ (Kabul)
Population 32,890,171 inhabitants
Area 652,090 square kilometres (251,770 sq mi)
Major languages Pashto and Dari (both official)
Major religions Islam
More information Afghanistan, Geography of Afghanistan, History of Afghanistan and Politics of Afghanistan
More images Afghanistan - Afghanistan (Category).

General maps

Map of Afghanistan
Map of Afghanistan
Topographic map of Afghanistan

Maps of divisions

This section holds maps of the administrative divisions.

Provinces of Afghanistan
Provinces of Afghanistan (in Pashto)
Provinces of Afghanistan (in Dari)
Districts of Afghanistan
Districts of Afghanistan

History maps

This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day Afghanistan, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day Afghanistan.

Early history

Present-day Afghanistan is around 1500 and 800 BC part of Ariana.

Persian rule

6th century BCE-328 BCE: Achaemenid Empire - occupying country ► Iran

Ariana is conquered by Persia in the sixth century BC. This map shows the Achaemenid Empire (Persia (648–330 BCE) at its greatest extent. Ariana becomes a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire.

Macedonian rule

328 BCE-323 BCE: Macedonian Empire - occupying country ► Macedonian Empire

In 328 BC, Alexander the Great of Macedon enters the territory to capture Bactria. This map shows the Expedition of Alexander the Great 334-323 BCE
Hellenistic successor states:
Kingdom of Ptolemy
Kingdom of Cassander
Kingdom of Lysimachus
Kingdom of Seleucus
Other states:
Hellenistic world in 200 BCE
Greco-Bactrian kingdom (250-125 BCE)
Indo-Greek kingdom (180 BCE-10 AD)
Indo-Greek Kingdom
Invasions by the Scythians, White Huns and Turkic tribes follow in succeeding centuries. Mentionable is the rule since the first century by the Kushanas, a buddhist people.
Kushan Empire
Hephthalite dominion (520)
Harsha's Empire around 600
The Parthian Empire (250 BCE-226 CE)
Map of Parthia 100 BC
Indo-Sassanide Empire
The Persian Sassanian Empire (226-650) in 602 to 629, Strokes: Under Sassanid military control.
Sassanide Empire
Sassanide Empire
In 642 the Caliphate invades the entire region and introduces islam. Expansion of the Caliphate: I: Muhammad; II: Abu Bakr; III: Omar and IV: Othman
Age of the Caliphs
Caliphate around 750
The rule of the Caliphate is replaced by a temporary Persian rule until the area is conquered by the Turkic Ghaznavids in 998. Ghazni is turned into a great cultural center as well as a base for frequent forays into India.
Various princes attempt to rule sections of the country until the Mongol invasion of 1219 led by Genghis Khan. Map showing changes in borders of the Mongol Empire from founding by Genghis Khan in 1206, Genghis Khan's death in 1227 to the rule of Kublai Khan (1260–1294). (Uses modern day borders)
Mongol Empire

By 1294 the empire had split into:

Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty)
Following Genghis Khan's death in 1227, a succession of chiefs and princes struggle for supremacy until late in the 14th century, when one of his descendants, Tamerlane, incorporates Afghanistan into his own vast Asian empire. Babur, a descendant of Tamerlane and the founder of India's Mogul dynasty at the beginning of the 16th century, makes Kabul the capital of an Afghan principality.
Mughal Empire (1600) and European possesions
Mughal Empire (1700) and Maratha Confederacy (1860)
Mughal Empire (1526-1857)
Mughal Empire
In 1747 Afghanistan liberates itself from the Empire of the Great Mogul. The State of Afghanistan is formed and Ahmad Shah Durrani establishes his rule. Throughout his reign, Durrani consolidates chieftainships, petty principalities and fragmented provinces into one country. His rule extends from Mashad in the west to Kashmir and Delhi in the east, and from the Amu Darya (Oxus) River in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. From time to time separate Afghan states are installed in Kandahar and Herat. Though the country is united sincethen, it has to accept after the second Anglo-Afghan war (1878-80), that brings Amir Abdur Rahman to the throne, a British protectorate in 1881. The British retain effective control over Kabul's foreign affairs.

After the third Anglo-Afghan war in 1919, Britain relinquishes its control over Afghan foreign affairs by signing the Treaty of Rawalpindi. This means full independence of Afghanistan and the establishment of a more or less constitutional monarchy. King Amanullah (1919-29) renames the country Kingdom of Afghanistan in 1926 and introduces modernization and secularization. This leads to his assassination and a short civil war. In 1929 Nadir Shah becomes king. Four years later, however, he is assassinated in a revenge killing by a Kabul student.

In 1933 Mohammed Zahir Shah becomes king. He introduces in 1964 a liberal constitution providing for a two-chamber legislature to which the king appointed one-third of the deputies. The people elected another third, and the remainder were selected indirectly by provincial assemblies. He permits a multi-party system. This leads to the formation of the communist Hizb-i-Democratic-i-Khalq (People's Democratic Party, HDK), which had close ideological ties to the Soviet Union. In 1967, the PDPA split into two major rival factions: the Khalq (Masses) faction headed by Noo Mohammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin and supported by elements within the military, and the Parcham (Banner) faction led by Babrak Karmal. After a coup d'état in 1973 Afghanistan becomes a dictatorial republic and is renamed Republic of Afghanistan. Mohammed Daoud Khan, until that moment prime minister, becomes president.

In 1978 the HDK seizes power and a communist dictatorship is established under the HDK, lead by Noor Mohammed Tarraki (1978-1979). The country is renamed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. When Taraki is assasinated in 1979 he is succeeded by Hafizullah Amin (1979). At that moment the USSR invades the country and installs after the assasination of Amin Babrak Karmal as new president. Islamic factions start a guerilla war against the regime and the soviet-occupation. In an attempt to moderate Afghanistan is renamed into Republic of Afghanistan in 1987. Karmal is replaced by Mohammed Najibullah in 1986.

In 1990 the Islamic mujaheddin (Holy Warriors) expel the communist dictatorship. Though a central government is installed, de facto the country is ruled by warlords. In 1992 the central government renames the country into the Islamic State of Afghanistan. Burhanuddin Rabbani becomes president. The civil war continues and in 1996 the Taleban movement of spiritual leader Mullah Mohammad Omar seizes power in most of the country. Afghanistan becomes a theocratic dictatorship and is renamed Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Mullah Mohammad Rabbani is appointed president.

After an invasion by the United States in 2001, followed by a popular uprising, the dictatorship collapses. Afghanistan gets a transition governement and is renamed Islamic State of Afghanistan. Burhanuddin Rabbani resumes office, but the same year he is succeeded by Hamid Karzai. In 2004 a new constitution is accepted, identifying Afghanistan as an "Islamic Republic." The constitution paves the way for nationwide presidential and parliamentary elections to be held in june 2004. The government's authority beyond the capital, Kabul, is slowly growing, although its ability to deliver necessary social services remains largely dependent on funds from the international donor community.

Communist invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan just before the US invasion
Provinces until 2004

Old maps

This section holds copies of original general maps more than 70 years old.

Hindustan in 1812 by Arrowsmith and Lewis
Map of Central Asia from Meyers Konversationslexikons (1885-1900), showing what is now Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and parts of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Chin

Other maps

Ethhno-Linguistic map of Afghanistan
Provincial Reconstruction Teams

Notes and references

General remarks:

  • The WIKIMEDIA COMMONS Atlas of the World is an organized and commented collection of geographical, political and historical maps available at Wikimedia Commons. The main page is therefore the portal to maps and cartography on Wikimedia. That page contains links to entries by country, continent and by topic as well as general notes and references.
  • Every entry has an introduction section in English. If other languages are native and/or official in an entity, introductions in other languages are added in separate sections. The text of the introduction(s) is based on the content of the Wikipedia encyclopedia. For sources of the introduction see therefore the Wikipedia entries linked to. The same goes for the texts in the history sections.
  • Historical maps are included in the continent, country and dependency entries.
  • The status of various entities is disputed. See the content for the entities concerned.
  • The maps of former countries that are more or less continued by a present-day country or had a territory included in only one or two countries are included in the atlas of the present-day country. For example the Ottoman Empire can be found in the Atlas of Turkey.
  1. Romanization: Afġānistān - Də Afġānistān Islāmī Imārat.
  2. Romanization: Afġānistān - Imārat-i Islāmī-yi Afghānistān.

Entries available in the atlas

General pages
Atlas   ■ Historical atlas   ■ Index of the Atlas   ■ Names in native languages

The world and its continents and oceans
Quick reference   ■ Historical maps of the world   ■ Old maps
Physical and topographical   ■ Political   ■ Geological   ■ People   ■ Time and time zones   ■ Projections of the globe
Africa   ■ North and South America   ■ Antarctica   ■ Asia   ■ Europe

(History, European Union)   ■ Oceania   ■ Oceans

Administrative divisions   ■ International organizations   ■ Languages   ■ Religions

Historical eras
Prehistory   ■ Antiquity   ■ Middle Ages   ■ Rise of Islam   ■ Early Modern Age   ■ Early American Societies   ■ Early Asian Societies   ■ Age of Renaissance   ■ Colonialism   ■ Stielers Handatlas 1891   ■ 20th Century   ■ World War I   ■ World War II

Entities with undisputed sovereign status
Afghanistan   ■ Albania   ■ Algeria   ■ Andorra   ■ Angola   ■ Antigua and Barbuda   ■ Argentina   ■ Armenia   ■ Australia   ■ Austria   ■ Azerbaijan   ■ Bahamas   ■ Bahrain   ■ Bangladesh   ■ Barbados   ■ Belarus   ■ Belgium   ■ Belize   ■ Benin   ■ Bhutan   ■ Bolivia   ■ Bosnia and Herzegovina   ■ Botswana   ■ Brazil   ■ Brunei   ■ Bulgaria   ■ Burkina Faso   ■ Burundi   ■ Cambodia   ■ Cameroon   ■ Canada   ■ Cape Verde   ■ Central African Republic   ■ Chad   ■ Chile   ■ China   ■ Colombia   ■ Comoros   ■ Congo (Democratic Republic)   ■ Congo (Republic)   ■ Costa Rica   ■ Côte d’Ivoire   ■ Croatia   ■ Cuba   ■ Cyprus   ■ Czech Republic   ■ Denmark   ■ Djibouti   ■ Dominica   ■ Dominican Republic   ■ East Timor   ■ Ecuador   ■ Egypt   ■ El Salvador   ■ Equatorial Guinea   ■ Eritrea   ■ Estonia   ■ Eswatini   ■ Ethiopia   ■ Fiji   ■ Finland   ■ France   ■ Gabon   ■ Gambia   ■ Georgia   ■ Germany   ■ Ghana   ■ Greece   ■ Grenada   ■ Guatemala   ■ Guinea   ■ Guinea-Bissau   ■ Guyana   ■ Haiti   ■ Honduras   ■ Hungary   ■ Iceland   ■ India   ■ Indonesia   ■ Iran   ■ Iraq   ■ Ireland   ■ Israel   ■ Italy   ■ Jamaica   ■ Japan   ■ Jordan   ■ Kazakhstan   ■ Kenya   ■ Kiribati   ■ Korea (Democratic People’s Republic)   ■ Korea (Republic)   ■ Kuwait   ■ Kyrgyzstan   ■ Laos   ■ Latvia   ■ Lebanon   ■ Lesotho   ■ Liberia   ■ Libya   ■ Liechtenstein   ■ Lithuania   ■ Luxembourg   ■ Madagascar   ■ Malawi   ■ Malaysia   ■ Maldives   ■ Mali   ■ Malta   ■ Marshall Islands   ■ Mauritania   ■ Mauritius   ■ Mexico   ■ Micronesia (Federated States)   ■ Moldova   ■ Monaco   ■ Mongolia   ■ Montenegro   ■ Morocco   ■ Mozambique   ■ Myanmar   ■ Namibia   ■ Nauru   ■ Nepal   ■ Netherlands   ■ New Zealand   ■ Nicaragua   ■ Niger   ■ Nigeria   ■ North Macedonia   ■ Norway   ■ Oman   ■ Pakistan   ■ Palau   ■ Panama   ■ Papua New Guinea   ■ Paraguay   ■ Peru   ■ Philippines   ■ Poland   ■ Portugal   ■ Qatar   ■ Romania   ■ Russia   ■ Rwanda   ■ Saint Kitts and Nevis   ■ Saint Lucia   ■ Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   ■ Samoa   ■ San Marino   ■ São Tomé and Príncipe   ■ Saudi Arabia   ■ Senegal   ■ Serbia   ■ Seychelles   ■ Sierra Leone   ■ Singapore   ■ Slovakia   ■ Slovenia   ■ Solomon Islands   ■ Somalia   ■ South Africa   ■ South Sudan   ■ Spain   ■ Sri Lanka   ■ Sudan   ■ Suriname   ■ Sweden   ■ Switzerland   ■ Syria   ■ Tajikistan   ■ Tanzania   ■ Thailand   ■ Togo   ■ Tonga   ■ Trinidad and Tobago   ■ Tunisia   ■ Turkey   ■ Turkmenistan   ■ Tuvalu   ■ Uganda   ■ Ukraine   ■ United Arab Emirates   ■ United Kingdom   ■ United States   ■ Uruguay   ■ Uzbekistan   ■ Vanuatu   ■ Vatican City   ■ Venezuela   ■ Vietnam   ■ Yemen   ■ Zambia   ■ Zimbabwe

Entities with disputed sovereign status
Abkhazia   ■ Artsakh   ■ Kosovo   ■ Northern Cyprus   ■ Palestine   ■ Somaliland   ■ South Ossetia   ■ Taiwan   ■ Tatarstan   ■ Transnistria   ■ Western Sahara

Dependencies and other overseas territories
Akrotiri and Dhekelia   ■ Åland   ■ American Samoa   ■ Anguilla   ■ Aruba   ■ Ascension Island   ■ Ashmore and Cartier Islands   ■ Baker Island   ■ Bermuda   ■ Bouvet Island   ■ British Indian Ocean Territory   ■ British Virgin Islands   ■ Cayman Islands   ■ Christmas Island   ■ Clipperton Island   ■ Cocos (Keeling) Islands   ■ Cook Islands   ■ Coral Sea Islands   ■ Curaçao   ■ Faroe Islands   ■ French Guiana   ■ French Polynesia   ■ French Southern and Antarctic Lands   ■ Gibraltar   ■ Greenland   ■ Guadeloupe   ■ Guam   ■ Guantanamo Bay   ■ Guernsey   ■ Heard Island and McDonald Islands   ■ Hong Kong   ■ Howland Island   ■ Isle of Man   ■ Jan Mayen   ■ Jarvis Island   ■ Jersey   ■ Johnston Atoll   ■ Kingman Reef   ■ Macau   ■ Martinique   ■ Mayotte   ■ Midway Atoll   ■ Montserrat   ■ Navassa Island   ■ New Caledonia   ■ Niue   ■ Norfolk Island   ■ Northern Mariana Islands   ■ Palmyra Atoll   ■ Pitcairn Islands   ■ Puerto Rico   ■ Réunion   ■ Saint Helena   ■ Saint Martin (France)   ■ Saint-Barthélemy   ■ Saint-Pierre and Miquelon   ■ Sint Maarten (Netherlands)   ■ Svalbard   ■ Tokelau   ■ Tristan da Cunha   ■ Turks and Caicos Islands   ■ United States Virgin Islands   ■ Wake Island   ■ Wallis and Futuna

Disputed subnational entities and territories
Bajo Nuevo Bank   ■ Crimea   ■ Falkland Islands   ■ Gilgit–Baltistan   ■ Kurdistan (Syrian)   ■ Kashmir   ■ Ladakh   ■ Paracel Islands   ■ Serranilla Bank   ■ South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands   ■ Spratly Islands   ■

Subnational autonomous entities
Aceh   ■ Adjara   ■ Adygea   ■ Altai   ■ Andalusia   ■ Aosta Valley   ■ Aragon   ■ Asturias   ■ Athos   ■ Azores   ■ Balearic Islands   ■ Bashkortostan   ■ Basque Autonomous Community   ■ Bonaire   ■ Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federation of)   ■ Bougainville   ■ Brussels   ■ Buryatia   ■ Canary Islands   ■ Catalonia   ■ Chechnya   ■ Chuvashia   ■ Corsica   ■ Dagestan   ■ Easter Island   ■ England   ■ Extremadura   ■ Flanders   ■ Friuli-Venezia Giulia   ■ Gagauzia   ■ Galicia   ■ Galápagos Islands   ■ Gilgit–Baltistan   ■ Gorno-Badakhshan   ■ Guangxi   ■ Ingushetia   ■ Islamabad Capital Territory   ■ Inner Mongolia   ■ Kabardino-Balkaria   ■ Kalmykia   ■ Karachay-Cherkessia   ■ Karakalpakstan   ■ Karelia   ■ Khakassia   ■ Komi   ■ Kurdistan (Iraqi)   ■ Khyber Pakhtunkhwa   ■ Madeira   ■ Mari El   ■ Muslim Mindanao   ■ Mordovia   ■ Nakhichevan   ■ Navarre   ■ Nevis   ■ Ningxia   ■ North Ossetia – Alania   ■ Northern Ireland   ■ Nunatsiavut   ■ Quebec   ■ Saba   ■ Sakha   ■ Sardinia   ■ Scotland   ■ Sicily   ■ Sindh   ■ Sint Eustatius   ■ Srpska   ■ Tibet   ■ Tłı̨chǫ   ■ Trentino-Alto Adige   ■ Tuva   ■ Udmurtia   ■ Vojvodina   ■ Wales   ■ Wallonia   ■ Xinjiang   ■ Zanzibar

Other regions
Basque Country   ■ Burzenland   ■ Catalan Countries   ■ Frisia   ■ Kurdistan   ■ Manchuria   ■ Sápmi   ■ Svenskfinland   ■ Székely Land   ■ Transylvania

Former sovereign nations
Austria-Hungary   ■ Byzantine Empire   ■ Caliphate   ■ Czechoslovakia   ■ Frankish Empire   ■ Kingdom of Hawaiʻi   ■ Inca Empire   ■ Iroquois Confederacy   ■ Macedonian Empire   ■ Ottoman Empire   ■ Prussia   ■ Roman Empire   ■ Soviet Union   ■ Republic of Texas   ■ Vermont Republic   ■ Republic of West Florida   ■ Yugoslavia

Former dependencies and overseas territories
Netherlands Antilles

Former disputed territories
Tamil Eelam