لخلافة الاسلامية يمكن تعريفها بأنها نظام الحكم (المنظمة السياسية) التي أوجدها المسلمون بعد وفاة رسول العالمين محمد بن عبدالله صلى الله عليه وسلم لتولي قيادة المسلمين و إدارة شؤوون الجماعة الاسلامية و الدولة الاسلامية التي كانت قد بدأت مرحلة التوسع و نشر الدع
The Caliphate (Arabic: was the state created by the prophet Muhammad. The first four caliphs were Muhammad's Sahaba (disciples); Abu Bakr, then Umar ibn al-Khattab, then Uthman ibn Affan, and the fourth was Ali ibn Abi Talib. Sunni Muslims consider Abu-Bakr to be the first legitimate Caliph, Shi'a consider Ali to have been the first truly legitimate Caliph, although they concede that Ali accepted his predecessors, because he eventually sanctioned Abu-Bakr. After these four caliphs, the Abbasid Dynasty, had fell apart, and the Fatimids from Kairouan took control, with a new capital in Egypt, Cairo.
The Abbasid Caliphate under Harun al-Rashid (786-809)
The provinces of the Abbasid Caliphate under Harun al-Rashid (786-809)
The Abbasid Caliphate in the mid-9th century
Muslim expansion and the Muslim world ca 945
Fragmentation of the Abbasid Caliphate in the 9th-10th centuries
East Hemisphere in 600 AD
East Hemisphere in 700 AD
East Hemisphere in 800 AD
East Hemisphere in 900 AD
The Arab-Byzantine frontier zone in eastern Anatolia
The Jazira in the early Islamic period
Iraq under the Abbasids
Khurasan and eastern Iran ca. 836
Sind in the Umayyad period
Transoxiana and Khurasan in the Umayyad period
Notes and references
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