Atlas of the Netherlands

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The Wikimedia Atlas of the World is an organized and commented collection of geographical, political and historical maps available at Wikimedia Commons.
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The Netherlands


Nederlands Nederland - Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
Nederland is een West-Europees land, begrensd door de Noordzee, Duitsland en België. De hoofdstad van het land is Amsterdam, de regeringszetel is Den Haag. Andere belangrijke steden zijn: Rotterdam, met een van de grootste havens van de wereld, Utrecht, het verkeersknooppunt van het land, Groningen (vooral voor het noorden) en Eindhoven, de vijfde stad van het land. Per 10 oktober 2010 is het tevens een Caribisch land, doordat Bonaire, Saba en Sint Eustasius onderdeel van Nederland zijn geworden. Het land Nederland is, net zoals Aruba, Curaçao en Sint Maarten, een deelstaat van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden.
Frysk[1] Nederlân -
Nederlân is in lân yn West-Jeropa, mei 16.300.000 ynwenners, en mei in oerflak fan 41.526 km² (wêrfan 7644.94 km² wetter). De haadstêd is Amsterdam. Nederlân wurdt begrinzge troch: de Noardsee yn it westen en noarden; Dútslân yn it easten; Belgje yn it súden.
English The Netherlands - Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Netherlands is the European and Caribean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,[2] which consists of the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten. The Netherlands is a constitutional monarchy, located in northwestern Europe. It is bordered by the North Sea to the north and west, ► Belgium (► Flanders and a small piece of ► Wallonia) to the south, and ► Germany to the east. The current borders were established in 1839. To the Kingdom belong also ► Aruba and the former ► Netherlands Antilles.[3]

Short name  The Netherlands
Official name Kingdom of the Netherlands
Status Independent country since 1581, recognized 1648, member of the ► European Union since 1957
Location Western Europe
Capital Amsterdam (de jure), Den Haag (The Hague, de facto[4])
Population 17,408,573 inhabitants
Area 41,526 square kilometres (16,033 sq mi)
Major languages Dutch (official), Frisian
Major religions Roman-Catholic, Protestantism
More information Netherlands, Geography of the Netherlands, History of the Netherlands and Politics of the Netherlands
More images Netherlands - Netherlands (Category).

General maps

Map of the Netherlands (Kaart van Nederland)
The Kingdom of the Netherlands

Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
The Netherlands
Map of the Netherlands
Map of the Netherlands including BES Islands

Kaart van Nederland inclusief BES-eilanden

Maps of divisions

This section holds maps of the administrative divisions.

The Netherlands are divided in 12 provinces. The names of the provinces are shown in this map, but the official name of Friesland, which is a Dutch name, is Fryslân, a Frisian name. (Provincies van Nederland. De officiële naam van Friesland is Fryslân)
The provinces are further divided in municipalities. (Nederlandse provincies en gemeenten) (2012)
Same map with public bodies BES. (Nederlandse provincies, gemeenten en openbare lichamen BES)

History maps

This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day the Netherlands, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day the Netherlands.

Palaeogeographic maps

The Netherlands at 5500 BC
The Netherlands at 3850 BC
The Netherlands at 2750 BC
The Netherlands at 500 BC
The Netherlands at 50 AD
The Netherlands at 800 AD

Early history

In the period after 800 BCE Celts enter the area of the present-day Netherlands. The green area suggests a possible extent of (proto-)Celtic influence around 1000 BC. The orange area shows the region of birth of the La Tène style. The red area indicates an idea of the possible region of Celtic influence around 400 BC. (De Kelten in Europa. Oker: Kerbereik Noord-West-Alpine Hallstattcultuur (ca. 750–500/450 v. Chr.) groen: Uitbreiding La-Tène-cultuur, bzw. oranje: de Keltische taal (3. Jh. v. Chr.))
This map shows a rough but rather different estimate from several sources about the distribution of Celts in Europe. Blue: extent of Celtic influence 1500 BCE - 1000 BCE. Purple: extent of Celtic influence 400 BCE. (De Kelten in Europa.)
Proto-Germanic people's

Proto-Germaanse stammen
Since 600 BC the area which forms now the Netherlands is inhabited by Germanic tribes, like the Bataves, the Frisians and the Caninephates. Map showing the pre-Migration Age distribution of the Germanic tribes in Proto-Germanic times, and stages of their expansion up to 50 BC, AD 100 and AD 300. The extent of the Roman Empire in 68 BC and AD 117 is also shown.

De Germaanse stammen voor het tijdperk van migratie
Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, ca 500 BC-50 BC

De pre-Romeinse ijzeren-tijd-culturen
Ancient Germania

Oud Germania

The Romans

The southern parts of the Netherlands become part of the ► Roman Empire shortly before 0. This map shows the Roman Empire in 50. (Zuid-Nederland wordt veroverd door het Romeinse Rijk. Zie voor meer kaarten de Atlas van het Romeinse Rijk).
The Roman province of Germania Inferior, including the southern parts of the Netherlands. (De province Germania Inferior, inclusief Zuid-Nederland.)
Around 256 the Germanic tribe of the Franks enter the area and since 296 they rule the area as defender of the border of the Roman Empire. This map shows invasions of the Roman Empire 100-500

Invallen in het Romeinse Rijk 100-500
After the division of the Roman Empire, the southern Netherlands become part of the ► Western Roman Empire. This map shows the Empire in 395. (Het Westromeinse Rijk rond 395)

The Franks

481-843: Frankish Empire - independent monarchy including the present-day Netherlands ► Frankish Empire

After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the area comes under control of Germanic tribes, especially the above mentioned Franks and the Frisians. This leads to the area becoming part of the Frankish Empire. (Na de val van het West-Romeinse Rijk nemen Germaanse stammen als de Franken en de Friezen de controle over het gebied over. Uiteindelijk wordt Nederland deel van het Frankische Rijk. Zie de Atlas van het Frankische Rijk.}
843-870: Middle Frankish Empire - independent monarchy including the present-day Netherlands ► Frankish Empire

[[|border|251x400px]] After the division of the Frankish Empire in the Treaty of Verdun the area became part of the Middle Frankish Empire.

Het Verdrag van Verdun
This map compares the Treaty of Verdun (843) with the Treaty of Meerssen (870)

Het Verdrag van Verdun 843 en het Verdrag van Meersen 870
843-962: East Frankish Empire - independent monarchy, including the present-days Netherlands ► Germany

This treaty leads to the most parts of the present-day Netherlands becoming part of the East Frankish Empire.

Verdeling van het Frankische Rijk 870

Part of the Holy Roman Empire

962-1648: Holy Roman Empire - independent monarchy, including the present-days Netherlands ► Atlas of Germany

The East Frankish Empire was continued by the (Holy) Roman Empire in 962. This map shows Central Europe 919-1125

Midden-Europa 919-1125
This map shows the area where the Frisians were living.

De Friezen
Frisia around 1300

Friesland rond 1300
[[|border|251x400px]] Dutch cities became active in the Hanseatic League.

De Hanze
Hanseatic trade routes

De Hanze-routes
The Holy Roman Empire in the 14th century

Het Heilige Roomse Rijk in de 14e eeuw
Holland united with Hainaut and Bavaria Straubing

Holland verenigd met Henegouwen en Beieren-Straubing

Burgundian rule inside the Holy Roman Empire

In the feudal German Empire the duchies and counties, together known as the Netherlands, come between 1384 and 1451 under the rule of Burgundy. This map shows the Low Countries in 1477

De Lage Landen in 1477
Burgundian possessions

De bezittingen van de Bourgondiërs
The Netherlands as part of the Holy Roman Empire

De Nederlanden als deel van het Heilige Roomse Rijk

Habsburgian rule inside the Holy Roman Empire

The Burgundian rule is continued by the Habsburgians since 1506. The last duchy, Gueldres, is annexed in 1543. This map shows Habsburgian ruled Europe, inclusive the Netherlands

Europa onder de Habsburgers
The Habsburgians around 1547. After the division of the Habsburgian countries in 1555 the Netherlands come under control of Habsburg-ruled Spain.

De Habsburgers 1547

Struggle for independence

Republic of the United Netherlands

1581-1795: Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden) - Independent republic, left the Holy Roman Empire in 1648

Shortly after the start the Netherlands in 1581 the Union became as the Republic of the United Netherlands a de facto independent federal state, lead by Willem van Oranje. In 1648 this is formalized in the treaty of Munster as a result of which the republic leaves the German Empire. The republic is rules by aristocrats around the family of Orange Nassau. The head of state is an hereditary Stateholder. The Netherlands develops into a colonial power with colonies in the Americas, Africa and the Far East. This map shows the United and the Spanish Netherlands.

De Verenigde en de Spaanse Nederlanden
Area controlled by the Holy Roman Empire around 1630

Het Heilige Roomse Rijk in 1630

Batavian Republic

1795-1806: Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek) - Independent republic

After a revolution the republic is in 1795 restyled into the Batavian Republic, a French puppet state. This is a parliamentary state, but gradually power comes in the hands of more or less authoritarian French vassals. The country is renamed Batavian Commonwealth in 1801.
The Batavian Republic

De Bataafse Republiek
The Batavian Commonwealth

Het Bataafse Gemenebest

Kingdom of Holland

1806-1810: Kingdom of Holland (Koninkrijk Holland) - Independent monarchy

In 1806 the French restyle it the Kingdom of Holland.
The Kingdom of Holland

Koninkrijk Holland

Occupation by France

1810-1813: French Empire - includes the present-day Netherlands ► France

In 1810 Holland is annexed by the French Empire 1811

De Nederlanden als deel van het Franse Rijk in 1811
The Netherlands under French occupation

De Nederlanden onder Franse bezetting

Kingdom of the Netherlands

1815-present[5]: Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) - independent monarchy

In 1813 independence is restored as the Sovereign Principality of the Netherlands. After the treaty of Vienna in 1815 the Netherlands unites with the former Austrian Netherlands and Liege into the Kingdom of the Netherlands. This is a constitutional monarchy with real power in hands of the King. This map shows the United Kingdom of the Netherlands

Het Verenigde Koninkrijk der Nederlanden (1815-1831)
A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. Dark green indicates colonies that either were, or originated from, land controlled by the Dutch West India Company, light green the Dutch East India Company

Het Nederlandse koloniale rijk. Donkergroen was in handen van de West-Indische Compagnie, lichtgroen in handen van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie.
Similar map
After a revolution in 1831 Belgium secedes from the Netherlands. This map shows the Netherlands, ► Belgium, ► Luxembourg and Limburg in 18391, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830)
1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830)
2 Duchy of Limburg (In the ► German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg)
3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after 1830)
4 and 5 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (borders until 1830)
4 Province of Luxembourg (Waals-Luxemburg, to Belgium in 1839)
5 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (German Luxemburg; borders after 1839)
In blue, the borders of the German Confederacy

Splitsing van de Nederlanden. 1 en 2: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, waarvan 2 Limburg, lid van de Duitse Bond. 3 en 4: Koninkrijk België, inclusief 4 Waals Luxemburg. 5: Groothertogdom Luxemburg, in personele unie met Nederland, lid van de Duitse Bond, maar exclusief 4 Waals Luxemburg.
Comparison of the frontiers of the kingdom

Vergelijking van de grenzen van het Koninkrijk
Both the province of Limburg as Luxembourg are part of the German Confederation

Nederland en de Duitse Bond
In the 1930s the Dutch start the Zuiderzee works.

De Zuiderzeewerken
In 1940 ► Nazi Germany invades the Netherlands and occupies the country until 1945.

De Duitse inval in Nederland 1940
German invasion of the Netherlands

De Duitse inval in Nederland 1940
German invasion of the Netherlands

De Duitse inval in Nederland 1940
In 1945 the Netherlands are liberated. In the Netherlands the Bakker-Schut Plan circulates to annex parts of Germany, but only small border corrections are realized.

Het Bakker-Schut Plan: Nederlandse annexatieplannen

Old maps

This section holds copies of original general maps more than 70 years old.

The 17 Netherlands, depicted as Leo Belgicus

De 17 Nederlanden als Leo Belgicus
Leo Belgicus by Josse de Hond

Leo Belgicus door Josse de Hond
Blaeu map of the Low Countries in 1635

De Lage Landen door Blaeu in 1645
Brabant by Ioan Blaeu, 1645

Hertogdom Brabant
Central Gelderland (Kwartier van Nijmegen) by Ioan Blaeu, 1645

Het Kwartier van Nijmegen
Upper Gelderland, 1645

County of Zutphen (in Gelderland), 1645

Graafschap Zutphen
Leo Hollandicus, 1648 by Claes Visscher

De Leo Hollandicus
Map of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, by Joannes (or Johannes) Janssonius in his collection Belgii Foederati Nova Descriptio, 1658

De Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden
Map of the Republic

Kaart van de Republiek

Other maps

the Benelux states
The Netherlands in relation to Water (Nederland en het water)
Randstad Holland
Old Dutch language

Het Oudnederlands
Dutch language in Europe

Nederlands in Europa
Dutch dialects

Nederlandse dialecten:

  • A. Southwestern dialect group (Zeeuws/West-Flemish)
    • 1. West-Flemish and Zeeuws-Flemish
    • 2. Zeeuws
  • B. Northwestern dialect group (Hollands)
    • 3. South-Hollands
    • 4. Westhoeks
    • 5. Waterlands and Volendams
    • 6. Zaans
    • 7. Kennemerlands
    • 8. West-Frisian
    • 9. Bildts, Midslands, Stads-Frisian and Amelands
  • C. Northeastern dialect group (Low Saxon)
    • 10. Kollumerlands
    • 11. Gronings and North-Drents
    • 12. Stellingswerfs
    • 13. Middle-Drents
    • 14. South-Drents
    • 15. Twents
    • 16. Twents-Graafschaps
    • 17. Gelders-Overijssels (Achterhoeks) and Urks
    • 18. Veluws
  • D. Northern-Central dialect group
    • 19. Utrechts-Alblasserwaards
  • E. Southern-central dialect group
    • 20. South-Gelders
    • 21. North-Brabants and North-Limburgs
    • 22. Brabants
    • 23. East-Flemish
  • F. Southeastern dialect group
    • 24. Limburgs
  • Miscelanius
    • FL. Province Flevoland. No dialect a majority, because of its short existence. (Post World War II)

The blank area (near zone 9) speaks Frisian dialects.

Dialects in the Benelux states
Dutch dialects

Nederlandse dialecten
Franco-Saxonian dialects

Frankische en Saksische dialecten
Low Franconian dialects

Nederfrankische dialecten
Low Franconian dialects

Nederfrankische dialecten

Population density

Schematic map of the Randstad

Schematische kaart van de Randstad
Dutch railways

Nederlandse spoorwegen
[[|border|251x400px]] Motorways

Area Codes

Postal codes

Satellite maps

Satellite map

Satellietfoto van Nederland

Notes and references

General remarks:

  • The WIKIMEDIA COMMONS Atlas of the World is an organized and commented collection of geographical, political and historical maps available at Wikimedia Commons. The main page is therefore the portal to maps and cartography on Wikimedia. That page contains links to entries by country, continent and by topic as well as general notes and references.
  • Every entry has an introduction section in English. If other languages are native and/or official in an entity, introductions in other languages are added in separate sections. The text of the introduction(s) is based on the content of the Wikipedia encyclopedia. For sources of the introduction see therefore the Wikipedia entries linked to. The same goes for the texts in the history sections.
  • Historical maps are included in the continent, country and dependency entries.
  • The status of various entities is disputed. See the content for the entities concerned.
  • The maps of former countries that are more or less continued by a present-day country or had a territory included in only one or two countries are included in the atlas of the present-day country. For example the Ottoman Empire can be found in the Atlas of Turkey.
  1. Frisian is a recognized language in the province of Friesland and, after Dutch, the second official language of the Netherlands.
  2. This name is used to designate the European part too.
  3. The Netherlands Antilles are dissolved in 2010. Two of the five islands areas became separate countries inside the kingdom: ► Curaçao and ► Sint Maarten.
  4. Though Amsterdam is the official capital, both government and parliament are seated in The Hague.
  5. Interrupted by the German occupation of 1940-1945.

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Former dependencies and overseas territories
Netherlands Antilles

Former disputed territories
Tamil Eelam