The Republic of the Union of Myanmar is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. It is also known as Burma or the Union of Burma by many bodies and states which do not recognize the ruling military junta. Myanmar is bordered by the ► People's Republic of China on the north, ► Laos on the east, ► Thailand on the southeast, ► Bangladesh on the west, and ► India on the northwest, with the Andaman Sea to the south, and the Bay of Bengal to the southwest. One-third of Myanmar's total perimeter, 1,930 km (1,199 mi), forms an uninterrupted coastline.
This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day Myanmar, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day Myanmar.
In the fifth century BC the Pyu, a Tibeto-Burman tribe arrive in present-day Burma. Around 0 the Pyu rule includes large parts of the area (see map). Another tribe, subordiante to the Pyu, named the Burmese, establish in 849 Burmese Pagan Kingdom. The other tribes, including the Pyu and the Mon, move to the north of the country. In 1287 Pagan is liquidated by Mongolian invadors and the state desintegrates in divided territories dependent from China. These territories unite in 1582 into the Kingdom of Burma under the Toungboo dinasty, but this doesn't develop into a stable country. Since 1752 Burma is more or less a really united country under the Konbaung dinasty of king Alaungpaya.
In the nineteenth century the United Kingdom tries to control Burma. It begins the conquest in 1824, expanding its holdings after each of the three wars. At the end of the third war in 1885 Britain gains complete control of Burma, annexing it the province of Burma inside British India. In 1937 Burma becomes a separate British colony, but the strive after independence is very strong.
Japan invades and occupies Burma in 1942 and establishes from 1943 until 1945 the puppet state Republic of Burma, lead by Burmese nationalists. This map shows the development of the Japanese Empire 1870-1942.
Part of the Second World War was the Battle of Kohima. After the battle the nationalists join the British forces in 1945 to liberate the country.
In 1946 the United Kingdom regains control over Burma. The Burmese nationalists, led by Aung San of the AFPFL, demand complete political and economic independence from Britain. Britain accedes to these demands. A constitution is completed in 1947 and independence granted in January 1948 as the Union of Burma. This map shows the division of Britain's holdings on the Indian subcontinent into the four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh)
This section holds copies of original general maps older than 70 years of this entry.
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