La République du Niger est un pays d'Afrique de l'ouest, situé entre l'Algérie, le Bénin, le Burkina Faso, le Tchad, la Libye, le Mali et le Nigeria. La capitale est Niamey. Les habitants sont des nigériens (ceux du Nigeria sont des nigérians). Parmi les ressources naturelles du Niger, on pourrait citer l'or, le fer, le charbon, l'uranium et le pétrole. Certains animaux, comme les éléphants, les lions et les girafes, sont en danger de disparition en raison de la destruction de la forêt et du braconnage.
Long before the arrival of French influence and control in the area, present-day Niger is an important economic crossroads, and the empires of Songhai, Mali, Gao and Kanem-Bornu as well as a number of Hausa states claim control over portions of the area.
During recent centuries, the nomadic Tuareg form large confederations, push southward and - siding with various Hausa states - clash with the Fulani Empire of Sokoto, which had gained control of much of the Hausa territory in the late 18th century.
In the 1880s it is penetrated by France, that annexes it in 1900 and makes this military territory part of French West Africa. Niger becomes a separate colony in 1921. In addition to conferring French citizenship on the inhabitants of the territory, the 1946 French constitution provides for decentralization of power and limited participation in political life for local advisory assemblies.
Areas in Niger where Hausa language is spoken. Note: Speakers of Hausa are mixed with speakers of other languages and thus this map does not necessarily represent areas with Hausa speaking majority.
Notes and references
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