The Ottoman Empire or Ottoman State was an empire that lasted from 1299 to November 1, 1922. It was succeeded by the Republic of Turkey, which was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923.
At the height of its power (16th–17th century), it spanned three continents, controlling much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. The Ottoman Empire contained 29 provinces and numerous vassal states, some of which were later absorbed into the empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. The empire also temporarily gained authority over distant overseas lands through declarations of allegiance to the Ottoman Sultan and Caliph, such as the declaration by the Sultan of Aceh in 1565; or through the temporary acquisitions of islands in the Atlantic Ocean, such as Lanzarote in 1585.
The empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. With Constantinople as its capital city, and vast control of lands around the eastern Mediterranean during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (ruled 1520 to 1566), the Ottoman Empire was, in many respects, an Islamic successor to the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
Sublime Ottoman State
1299 - 1922
Asia, Africa and Europe
Söğüt (1302–1326), Bursa (1326–1365), Edirne (1365–1453), Constantinople (1453–1922)
This section holds a short summary of the history, illustrated with maps.
Growth of the Ottoman Empire
Eastern Mediterranean in 1450
Map of the Ottoman Empire 16th/17th century
Location of the Ottoman Empire in 1683
Ottoman Empire territorial gains until 1683
Animation of the Ottoman Empire 1830-1923
Armenia in 1914
This section holds copies of original general maps older than 70 years of this entry.
Map of south-eastern Europe ca. 1340 AD.
Development of the European part of the Ottoman Empire
Map of the Ottoman Empire 1566
Growth of the Ottoman Empire
Stagnation and reform (1683–1827)
Imperium Turcium (Osmanisches Reich), c. 1700
Map of the Ottoman Empire 1801
Decline and modernization (1828–1908)
Balkans after 1856
↑The text of the summary of the history is mainly based on the text in Wikipedia.
Notes and references
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